The Relationship Between People's Experiences and Their Expectations
— Alexandra N.
— Scott H.
Blending Art and Science
The genesis of Xmetryx lies at the intersection of brain science, behavioral science, and business practice. It is the relationship between expectation (the circumstances that form a baseline psychological contract) and experience (the contextual and psychological factors that determine need satisfaction, and meaningfulness), that predict the strength and direction of relationships.
Xmetryx provides leaders with the tools to measure experience-expectation gaps, and map and track the results of efforts to close those gaps.
The research foundation underlying Xmetryx is broad and deep. It is built upon the four pillars of: Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985); Engagement Theory (Kahn, 1990); Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory (Oliver, 1977, 1980); and Psychological Contract Theory (Rousseau, 1989).
For more information about Self-Determination Theory, Engagement Theory, Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory, or Psychological Contract Theory, we highly recommend the following references:
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation, (pp. 85-107). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362. doi:10.1002/job.322
- Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724. doi:10.2307/256287
- Oliver, R. L. (1977). Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on post-exposure product evaluations: An alternative interpretation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 480-486. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.62.4.480
- Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee responsibilities and rights journal, 2(2), 121-139.
- Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
- Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). What is engagement? In C. Truss, K. Alfes, R. Delbridge, A. Shantz, and E.C. Soane (Eds.), Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice, (pp. 1-38) London: Routledge.
- Truss, C., Shantz, A., Soane, E., Alfes, K., & Delbridge, R. (2013). Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual well-being: Exploring the evidence, developing the theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 2657-2669. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.798921